​Social loafing and other top teamwork ills

​Social loafing and other top teamwork ills

Knowing what to look out for can be half the battle, according to Dr. Mario Moussa, Dr. Derek Newberry and Madeline Boyer, authors of the book Committed Teams.

Teams can be found in every organisation today, and they show no signs of going away soon. Increasingly, in fact, being good at teamwork is synonymous with simply being good at your job.

There is a valid reason for this. The complexity of today’s world — marked by rapidly accelerating technological, economic and cultural trends — demands that organisations of all kinds seek out the synergistic potential of teams. But too often what they deliver is a lot of talk and little accountability.

Mario Moussa, Ph.D., Madeline Boyer and Derek Newberry, Ph.D. explore this theme in their new book, CommittedTeams: Three Steps to Inspiring Passion and Performance (Wiley).

The authors say they have observed over 100 teams collaborating and competing for over 100 combined simulation years in an intense environment.

Their research led to fundamental insights about teamwork — what usually goes wrong, what frequently goes right, and the methods and techniques that will help anyone access a team’s full potential, they state. Their insights have been distilled into a simple, repeatable process that can be applied immediately.

“The question we sought out to answer was, how do you create a team that is committed to high performance, when few teams end up being truly greater than the sum of their parts?” says one of the authors, Mario Moussa.

One of the major cognitive biases recognised by research is outcome bias: if you’re successful, you don’t really reflect on what went well or could have gone better.

Face to face with social loafers

One of the issues they observed is the well-documented phenomenon of “social loafing”.

They illustrate this with a typical scene in a corporate retreat:

“Twisting your features into a mask of pain, you dig your heels into the soft grass. A rope tears into your palms. A clear, tiny voice speaks to you amid the many confused thoughts swirling in your head: “So-o-o-o … what am I learning from this experience?”

Well, if you’re like many who have done this exercise at a corporate retreat, you should be learning about teamwork. As others join you, the collective rope-pulling effort seems to demonstrate the point. Little by little, the boulder starts moving until it nudges over the 30-foot mark. Cheers erupt. But you notice something. With each additional person who contributes to the effort, the boulder moves faster, but not as fast as you would have imagined. By the time the tenth person steps up, you feel the group is barely pulling harder than when it was only six, even though everyone seems to be working hard.”

Social loafing is just one issue that plagues any group of individuals working together, but it isn’t the only one, they state. “Knowing what to look out for can be half the battle.”

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The authors list the five biggest teamwork ills and prescriptions to help avoid them:

  • Overemphasising abstract goals

People like to talk about transcendent goals for a reason. Steve Jobs was known for his inspiring keynote talks that emphasized changing the world. Such goals are uplifting, and can make work feel more meaningful. But when teams overestimate the importance of inspiring vision when setting goals for their team, they risk not paying enough attention to aligning personal priorities with those bigger goals. If team members don’t understand ‘What’s In It For Me?’, it can be hard for them to commit to working towards team goals.

Teamwork Rx: Make sure that big, collective goals align with small, personal commitments that drive performance.

  • Underemphasising roles
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Many teams think that merely getting the right talent in play is all that it takes for a team to be successful. Research has shown, though, that you need clear structure and well-defined interdependent roles in order to best leverage the strengths of those on your team. Contrast the 2004 U.S. Men’s Olympic Basketball Dream Team’s disappointing performance to the 2015 NBA Champion Golden State Warriors’ expert management of team roles.

Teamwork Rx: Well-structured teams generally outperform those with more raw talent—strength, skill, or IQ. Take time to find the roles and structure that make sense for your team.

  • Making too many rules

Human beings are rule-making machines—it is what defines us as a species and allows us to interact as social beings. Often the tendency in teams is to try to plan for every possible situation and create rules for all potential contingencies. This is both time consuming and ineffective. Starbucks CEO and founder, Howard Schultz understood the importance of focusing on the right rules when he decided to bring back in-store bean grinding to help restore the brand’s reputation and performance.

Teamwork Rx: Focus on the few rules that are likely to have the biggest impact on your team’s culture and performance: information-sharing, decision-making and conflict resolution.

  • Ignoring reflection
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One of the major cognitive biases recognised by research is outcome bias: if you’re successful, you don’t really reflect on what went well or could have gone better. However, in a world characterised by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity, or VUCA, successes are fleeting, and reflection is as imperative when things are going well as they are when they’re not. Too often companies and teams reserve formal reflection for annual retreats or quarterly reviews, when in reality it needs to be taking place with much more frequency.

Teamwork Rx: Remember that check-ins need not always be huge affairs reserved for day-long retreats—they can be as simple as a weekly stand-up meeting.

  • Failing to sell the change

You can be right, but ultimately still be unsuccessful. Such was the case for Lloyd Braun, the ABC executive who was the champion and driving force behind the smash hit, Lost. Braun was so convinced that his idea would be a hit, he barreled through green lighting the most expensive television pilot budget to date, US$12 Million. He did not take the time to get others on board with his vision, and even though his intuition was correct, he was fired before the show even premiered.

Teamwork Rx: Strength of will and charisma are not enough to push through change—work hard to get buy-in so that people want to come along with you.

"In the end, good teaming is about being mindful about how you’re working together, and making sure to check-in frequently to close the gaps between what you say you want to do and what you’re actually doing," they conclude.

Dr. Derek Newberry, Madeline Boyer and Dr. Mario Moussa, authors of the book Committed Teams.
Dr. Derek Newberry, Madeline Boyer and Dr. Mario Moussa, authors of the book Committed Teams.

Dr. Mario Moussa, Dr. Derek Newberry and Madeline Boyer are the authors of Committed Teams: Three Steps to Inspiring Passion and Performance. Dr. Moussa teaches in the Executive Programs at Wharton School of Executive Education. Dr. Newberry and Boyer are lecturers at the Wharton School of Business and Senior Consultants at Percipient Partners.

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Tags teamworkPercipient PartnersWharton School of Executive Educationchage managementDr. Mario MoussastrategycollaborationDr. Derek Newberrydisruptionsocial loafingMadeline Boyerresearch

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